Modern  cities  are  increasingly  turning  into  ICT  technology  toward  confronting  pressures  associated  with  demographic changes, urbanization, climate change and globalization. Therefore most cities have  during the last decade undertaken significant investments in ICT infrastructure including computers, broadband  connectivity and recently sensing infrastructures. Those have empowered a number of innovative services that have been extensively deployed in several cities.



Social networks and sensor networks can be combined in order to offer a variety of added‐value services for smart cities, as has already been demonstrated in the scope of a  number  of  early  internet‐of‐things applications. Recently, the benefits of social networking and internet‐of‐things deployments for smart cities have also been demonstrated in the scope of a range of EC co‐funded projects. Despite  the  proliferation  of  social  networking  infrastructures  and  sensor  networking  infrastructures  and  deployments, there is still no easy way to develop, customize, deploy and operate such services in smart cities.  This creates several challenges for all the stakeholders that engage in value chains of such services.  In particular:

  • ICT companies (notably SMEs) that develop services for smart cities do not have tools and techniques for the rapid development and deployment of social networking and IoT services.
  • The cities and their authorities cannot easily leverage services that have already been successfully deployed in other cities. Cities need to be able to flexibly identify and select existing services (in other cities) that could be successfully deployed at their territories.
  • Users are increasingly requesting for media‐rich services offered under different space‐, context‐, situational and trends conditions.  Mechanisms  are  required  that  integrate  such  dimensions  within  the  context  of  service provision by utilizing next generation access (NGA) networks.
  • Business and citizens residing in modern cities are nowadays faced with a host of ICT‐based services, yet they are not offered with ways to participate in the operation, evaluation and fine‐tuning of the services.

Motivated by the above challenges RADICAL  will  open  new  horizons  in  the  development,  deployment  and  operation of interoperable social networking and IoT services in smart cities, notably services that could be flexibly and  successfully  customized and replicated across multiple  cities.  The main  goal  of the project is  to  provide the means for cities and SMEs to rapidly develop, deploy, replicate, pilot and evaluate a diverse set of sustainable ICT services that leverage established Internet‐of‐things and social networking infrastructures.

LL Radical Concept

Thus, RADICAL will ultimately introduce a whole new approach for the successful  introduction  and penetration  of  smart  city  services  in  modern  cities  taking  into  account  the  technological  infrastructures, legal environments and socio‐economic characteristics.In the sequel we outline the main characteristics and benefits of the RADICAL approach:

  • Open Platform‐based: Rather than relying  on the ad‐hoc integration of social networking and IoT infrastructures, RADICAL will integrate and provide a unique platform enabling the structured disciplined and sustainable integration of the target services. The RADICAL platform will also accelerate the development of services, while boosting their sustainability and technological longevity. This platform will be based on the integration of readily available R&D results from  the  FP7  projects  SocIoS  and  +Spaces  on  social  networking  and  the  FP7  project  SmartSantander  (http://www.smartsantander.eu/) on IoT.
  • Interoperable, replicable and customizable services – Support  for  Smart  Governance:  The  RADICAL  approach  emphasizes  the  development of interoperable services that will be flexibly customized and replicated across multiple smart  cities with a fair effort. To this end, the RADICAL approach will take into account the peculiarities of each city in terms of its technical/technological, socio‐economic and legal environments.
  • A User‐Centric Living Labs Approach: In the scope  of  its  requirements  gathering,  pilot,  validation  and  evaluation  phase,  RADICAL  will  employ  a  living  labs  approach  [VonHippel86],  beyond  however  most  conventional  living  labs  that  barely  take  into  account  representative  samples  in  testing  and  experimentation  of  novel  ICT  services.  The RADICAL  approach  will  therefore be a «more than living lab approach», which will carefully select the participants (i.e. citizens and  businesses/organizations) that will participate in the pilot operations and the subsequent evaluation of the  services.
  • Engagement of  all stakeholders (Cities, City Authorities, (ICT) SMEs, Businesses,  Citizens)
  • Pervasive, multi‐sensory and socially‐aware services: RADICAL builds on top of two mainstream ICT advances, namely the proliferating social networking infrastructures and the internet‐of‐things. The RADICAL platform will therefore enable cities to evolve towards the vision of smart socially‐aware pervasive cities.
  • Media‐oriented services: RADICAL will provide mechanisms to enable the fulfillment of specific requirements towards the platform as highlighted by media‐oriented services. The underlying infrastructure will allow NGA services to be deployed and provisioned within different contexts (as also outlined in later sections).
  • Sustainable  Services  for  Sustainable  Urban  Development:  The  RADICAL  approach  emphasizes  on  the  sustainability  of  the  services  to  be  deployed,  targeting  both  the  environmental  sustainability  and  the  economic/business  viability.  Relevant  indicators  (e.g.,  CO2  emissions,  ROI (Return‐on‐Investment),  IRR  (Internal Rate of Return, Citizens Satisfaction) will be established and monitored as part of the project’s  evaluation. The ultimate goal is to enable cities using the RADICAL approach to set and monitor sustainability goals associated with their social networking and IoT services.
  • Innovative and Leading edge (delivering added‐value to the cities): The RADICAL services will exploit best‐of‐ breed  research  results  associated  with  the  social  and  sensor  networking  infrastructures  based  on  the  corresponding  background  projects  (SocIoS,  +Spaces,  SmartSantander).  Therefore, it will integrate novel services beyond what has been already proposed, deployed and evaluated in modern smart cities.
  • Aligned to EU and National Policies: the RADICAL vision and project activities are perfectly in‐line with relevant political and policy development initiatives at national, regional and EU levels. The project outcomes will essentially reinforce these activities, while also contributing to their improvement.

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